How did Washington's cabinet save the American Revolution?


At the end of 1776, the wealth of patriots who fought in the American Revolution was at its peak. It's been a year full of defeats. Washington's army was defeated on Long Island and Manhattan and had to retreat through New Jersey, and the British army followed its example. In 2014, the army reduced the army from about 19,000 men before the Battle of New York to less than 6,000. Another U.S. army led by Benedict Arnold was expelled from Canada after it failed to take Quebec last winter. Thomas Paine called this period "fifteen times that are tested for human souls." Congress, which has done little to support the Declaration of Independence, fled Philadelphia to Baltimore, where it continued to do very little. How did Washington's cabinet save the American Revolution?

Washington's cabinet

On the British side, the Washington's cabinet ordered that a weak army not block the Delaware River, which separated New Jersey from Pennsylvania, next spring. But the Washington cabinet had a weapon that Britain could not fully assess. He had already saved his troops from closing the dam, and by the end of 1776 was doing so again. To increase his courage, when the Washington's cabinet came and passed Delaware, he ordered his men to seize all the ships and go ashore. . in Pennsylvania, where his troops were finally able to rest. On New Year’s Day 1777, the list of most of his depressed men comes down. He must first defend his army and then find a way to use it before the Revolution ends in disgrace. Here's how Washington's cabinet faced the biggest crisis of his military career and how he turned it into his best moment.

1. Washington's cabinet loses another one during the retreat from New York.

Charles Lee was a former British officer. He served in the British Army before emigrating to Virginia in 1775 in North America, Portugal, Poland, and Ireland. In this important year, he traveled extensively in the colonies and became one of the leaders of the Patriots. During the catastrophic defeat at Long Island, he commanded a wing of the Continental Army and was Washington's second assistant. Lee slowly withdrew from New Jersey, although the Washington cabinet invited him to join a large part of the army. Instead, Lee moved slowly and within a short distance of his troops. When he was captured on December 12, 1776, by British cavalry, he wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates at a hotel in Basket Ridge, New Jersey, in which he criticized the Washington cabinet.

Lee believed it was he, not the Washington cabinet, who was to command the Continental Army and wrote a series of letters complaining about the incompetence of Washington's ministers. He wrote in a letter during his captivity: 'The great man is imperfect.' Washington appointed General John Sullivan as Lee's former army commander, and Lee quickly carried out his commander's orders. The loss of Lee was an advantage for the Continental Army, which remained under British control until 1778. That same year he returned to patriotism and quickly proved that his inclination to rebellion had not changed. In Sullivan, Washington found an obedient and capable subordinate who in the last days of 1776 was decisive for the success of Washington's cabinet plans.

2. Washington's cabinet had a Marine Regiment in its army

The 14th Regiment of the Continental Army consisted mainly of sailors and fishermen from the Marblehead, Massachusetts area. Under the command of Colonel John Glover, a merchant, and shipowner, the regiment proved to be one of the most valuable units in Washington's cabinet army in 1776. The people were more disciplined than most of his other regiments, accustomed to the discipline required at sea. They wore leather vests, sailor's shoes, and sailor hats. After the defeat at Long Island, Washington's troops were trapped at the eastern end of the island, fortified, but too weak in numbers and equipment to withstand the British siege. Their defeat was total and there seemed to be no escape from it. The British Navy controlled the waters around Long Island, and his army blocked all land routes. Washington returned to the Marblehead. In response, what has been described as a military miracle was accomplished.

On the night of August 29-30, 1776, Marblehead's regiment led the entire continental army through British guns to the relatively safe Manhattan. They carried people, horses, weapons, wagons, carts, supplies, luggage, and other trifles across the East River in a dense fog that hindered visibility. They accomplished this feat without losing a single man or cannon. Demonstrating their navigational skills, the Marblehead regiment later served with distinction during the Manhattan operation, often remaining behind the guards and watching the American retreat. Washington wondered about the unique capabilities of this unit as its weakened army was sliding down the Delaware River from New Jersey. Approaching the river, he sent a regiment of Marblehead to collect all the boats within a few miles of its shore. The boats crossed with the troops to the Pennsylvania side.

3. December conscription into the army threatened the existence of the continental army.

In addition to the humiliating defeats suffered by Continental Army soldiers in 1776, George Washington's Cabinet faced a number of other problems while retreating across New Jersey. His troops did not receive a salary for several months, and many did not receive it at all. There was a shortage of food, and the food provided by Congress was often contaminated. At the beginning of the summer, the issued clothes, especially shoes, were worn out. In November, an unusually cold period began, which lasted throughout December. Congress received numerous letters from Washington's cabinet, D.C., describing the conditions of the troops, examining them, discussing them, and doing nothing. Unable to collect taxes, she could do nothing but ask for help from the states.

As Washington's cabinet army crossed the Pennsylvania border, he cut off his retreat. Two things were favorable to him. First, the Delaware River was flooded, and navigation was hampered by icebergs. Secondly, the British army and all European armies were accustomed to limiting offensive operations during the winter months. Washington also had a well-organized intelligence network, which kept him informed of the British plans and the deployment of troops. The British founded several posts in New Jersey and stayed there for wintering. Temporarily protected from further persecution, Washington mobilized to persuade its troops to extend their service for another six weeks. Moreover, what the soldiers had already promised and had not received, little could be promised. However, if he did nothing, he would not have an army at the beginning of the new year.

4. Washington's cabinet and the crisis

On December 19, Thomas Paine published the first of 13 articles that would later appear in The American Crisis. On December 23, a week before most people were conscripted, Washington ordered camps to be organized. The members read the essays "Soldier of summer" and "The Patriot of the Sun." Meanwhile, a large group of militiamen had gathered from the lower bodentons across the Delaware River. This caught the attention of the Hesseians and the British garrison, who conducted an investigation. This led to a skirmish known as the 'Battle of Mount Holly'. Most of the American militia was driven out of the battlefield. The Hessians, led by Karl von Donnap, remained where they were after the conflict because they could not defeat the enemy. In other words, they were too far away to support the Trenton garrison.
Washington's aide-de-camp, Joseph Reed, took part in the battle, arriving on Christmas Day to discuss possible maneuvers at Boulderton. In recent weeks, Washington has been planning attacks on British and Hesse forces in New Jersey. Only trusted senior officials know his plans. Washington hoped that the attack in bordeaux would be coordinated with the attack at Trenton, but the premature attack at Mount Holly was also beneficial to his plan, albeit prematurely. Donnap was unable to support the Trenton garrison commanded by John Rowley, especially due to deteriorating roads. Both Donnapp and Rolle asked for reinforcements from British General James Grant, who commanded New Jersey. However, this request was not granted.

5. Washington's cabinet needed a victory to restore the morale of its troops

In December 1776, George Washington realized that he desperately needed a victory if he was to save his army by the end of the year. In several states, the new military authorities would have given him additional assistance, but he needed to maintain a core of veterans for at least a month before the New Year. Nothing more than a win would increase his chances of keeping the men. That is, something other than money. In another letter to Congress, Washington stressed that it must pay its troops, if not all, then at least some of the debt. Since he couldn't do anything else for money, he focused on winning. Although his army looked hopeless and defeated, he had certain advantages. The British and Hess could not trust him with the attack.

They argued that the same flooded and frozen Delaware River that had protected Americans from attack also protected New Jersey garrisons. The winter weather was terrible and it was getting colder every day. Loyalist spies in the area alerted General Grant to the state of Washington's cabinet army. However, they did not notify the British of the large boats, called Durham boats, which had gathered on the banks of the river near the camps in Washington. If they existed, the British did not understand their importance. They soon found out. On Christmas Day 1776, Washington assembled 3,000 of its most loyal soldiers and took them to the river. There, Glover's regiment waited from Marblehead, ready to load troops, horses, and artillery onto a ship and take them to New Jersey. The motto of the evening was 'Victory or Death'.

Little doubt that George Washington's Cabinet saved the American cause from 1776-1977.
In October 1776, when Washington's cabinet army withdrew from the British when soldiers defected and recruits began to decline, he contemplated withdrawing to the mountains and fighting a guerrilla war. This is how desperate the situation was for patriots in the first months after independence. In a matter of months, he lost most of his army, several battles, America's largest city, its commanding officer, and most of its reputation. But he never lost faith in himself or in the people he led; their actions in December 1776 and January 1777 were courageous, bold, and perhaps even reckless. If he had failed, the Continental Army would have been destroyed. But he didn't fail. He managed, however small it was, at a time when success was the only possibility.

In recent years, it has become fashionable to denigrate George Washington. His military prowess, leadership, and character were questioned, mainly because he was a master of the enslaved people: already in 1776, his character was that of a man who did not yield to unintended demands. He was a leader enough to bring a wounded and demoralized population to follow him in the cold and snow, despite the physical obstacles and preponderance of enemy weapons. He made the most of the hungry, crippled, poorly dressed, and distressed men. And he was an excellent general who could see and seize opportunities that no one else saw. In this way, he and the men he led saved the American Revolution under the motto 'win or die.